What happened to the North and South after the war? What about
future political leaders? Five future presidents – Grant, Hayes,
Garfield, Harrison, and McKinley – had been Union officers. And
what about the newly freed blacks, who were guaranteed freedom by
the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments but instead encountered a new
form of enslavement through share cropping and Jim Crow laws, not
to be reversed until the 1950s and ’60s? These issues and more are
addressed in this section.